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casserole dish full of borani banjan with yogurt and cilantro

Borani Banjan (بورانی بادمجان) Afghan Eggplant Casserole

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ORIGINS: The history of borani starts in Iran, where it’s enjoyed as a cold starter dish. But unlike its Persian ancestor, this Afghan version of borani banjan is nice and warm, perfect for winter.

Borani Banjan (بورانی بادمجان), Afghan Eggplant Casserole

Borani banjan is an Afghan eggplant dish baked with spicy tomato gravy. This naturally vegan-friendly recipe makes for a comforting, aromatic winter casserole.
Prep: 50 mins
Cook: 30 mins
Total: 1 hr 20 mins
Course: Main Course, Side Dish
Cuisine: Afghan
Servings: 4 sides
Calories: 294kcal
Cost: $1.12


Roasted Eggplants

  • 1/2 cup vegetable oil, divided into 5 tbsp and 3 tbsp 60 g + 40 g
  • 1 large eggplant 1–1½ lbs or 450–650 g
  • 1/2 tsp salt or 1 tsp kosher salt 3 g

Tomato Gravy

  • 1 head garlic 50 g; can sub garlic paste if you're lazy
  • 1/2 inch piece ginger 5 g; can sub ginger paste if you're lazy
  • 1 tbsp tomato paste 18 g *optional
  • 1/2 tsp paprika
  • 1/2 tsp red pepper flakes
  • 1 tsp ground cumin
  • 1 black cardamom pod, ground into powder *optional
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • 1 tsp fine salt or 2 tsp kosher salt 6 g
  • 1/2 tsp ground black pepper
  • 1 large tomato 500 g; can sub canned diced tomatoes


  • 1/2 cup fresh cilantro 15 g
  • 1/2 cup plain vegan yogurt 120 g


Roast the Eggplants

  • Rinse and slice the eggplant into 1-cm (1/3-inch) thick pieces.
  • Lay each slice side by side on lined baking sheets. (We'll be roasting the eggplants, although the traditional method is to deep-fry them.) You'll need 3–4 baking sheets to fit all the eggplants.
  • Drizzle 5 tbsp of oil over the eggplants (no need to flip them) and sprinkle with 1/2 tsp salt. Roast in an oven at 425 °F for 30–40 minutes or until golden brown.

Prep Tomato Gravy

  • Meanwhile, crush or chop the tomato and gather the spices (paprika, red pepper flakes, cumin, ground black cardamom, turmeric, salt, black pepper).
  • Crush the garlic into a rough paste; reserve half for mixing into the yogurt (step 17). I use a mortar and pestle but a garlic press works too.
  • Crush ginger and mix it into the garlic, along with tomato paste.
  • Heat 3 tbsp of oil in a saucepan on medium-low heat. (If you have a laser thermometer, it should be around 300 °F.)
  • Add the garlic-ginger-tomato paste and gently fry (temper) for a few minutes or until fragrant.
  • Add all the spices and temper for another 30 seconds.
  • Pour in the chopped tomatoes and mix thoroughly with the spices. Cover with a lid and simmer for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally.

Assemble and Bake

  • When eggplants are roasted to a golden-brown colour, remove them from the oven. Keep oven on.
  • Arrange a layer of eggplant at the bottom of a small casserole dish.
  • Cover with a layer of tomato sauce.
  • Continuing alternating the eggplant and tomato sauce until you reach your last layer of eggplant. Top with a layer of cilantro (reserve some for garnish if you'd like), then cover with the remaining tomato sauce.
  • Cover the casserole either with an oven-safe lid or with a tight wrap of aluminum oil, then bake in the oven for 25 minutes at 425 °F.
  • Meanwhile, mix together the yogurt with the remaining garlic.
  • Remove casserole from oven and let stand 5 minutes before uncovering and serving. Top with yogurt and sprinkle with any remaining cilantro.

Recipe Notes

If you like more spice in your dishes, you can add another 1/2 tsp of red pepper flakes. Alternatively, sprinkle 1 tsp of Mesmerize Spices Fire Salt over the casserole after baking, just before adding the yogurt and cilantro.

Step-by-Step Process

How to Serve

Borani banjan is traditionally served with a stuffed Afghan flatbread called bolani, but I’ve found it makes a wonderful meal eaten with plain basmati rice. (We had some leftover rice from when I made ghormeh sabzi which we ate with the borani banjan. Delicious!)

Deep-Fried vs Roasted Eggplant

I learned about borani banjan while reading the Afghan Culture Unveiled blog, where Katie and Humaira call it “luscious layered eggplant.” And that’s exactly the word to describe it. This eggplant is lush lushhhh baby. It’s so melt in your mouth tender, with plenty of oil to add flavour but not enough to feel greasy. Yes, 1/2 cup of oil seems like a lot but you won’t feel like it after eating!

The thing is, the traditional method of cooking this dish calls for deep-frying the eggplants. But eggplant soaks up oil like crazy, and even if you drain the pieces on paper towels they still retain a lot of oil. I tried the deep-fry method and although the texture was lovely, it just felt a little too greasy after a couple of bites, especially because the tomato gravy contains plenty of oil too. So I tested roasting instead, and the eggplant slices still turned out velvety soft, using only a fraction of the fat. (I do recommend adding the full amount of oil given in the recipe, though: that’s key for the luscious mouthfeel.)

Nutrition, Cost, and Emissions Information

Each plate of borani banjan is 294 cal, costs $1.12, and releases 894 gCO2e of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

Calculation for full recipe as written (4 servings):

Feel free to contact me for sources on the nutritional and carbon emissions information presented here. Note that I am not a nutritionist and guidelines on this page are provided for informational purposes only.

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